Leo Lehmicke - Co2 and Water
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  How I Work
  Summary of Experience
  Education, Training and Teaching
  Publications, Published Presentations and Abstracts

How I Work

I enjoy challenging projects and like to solve clients' problems. I use rigorous science for all my projects, and when I write something it usually contains numerous technical references. I do not believe bioremediation is the best solution to every problem and have recommended that bioremediation NOT be implemented many times. I practice within my bioremediation realm and will refer you elsewhere if your needs can be better served.

I have been fortunate to have several excellent clients who use teams of experts from different firms and I prefer to work this way. While working at BEAK, Exponent and Hargis, many of my projects were in support of consulting firms that did not have bioremediation expertise.

Maintaining a close association with research professors in academia allows me to perform high quality and innovative lab studies, and investigate the biodegradation of novel compounds. I have developed research projects, arranged collection of site samples and in many cases, obtained funding, for eight graduate students pursuing Masters or PhD degrees at the University of Illinois, Clemson University and the University of Washington. Most of these students who have completed their degrees now have jobs in the environmental industry.

I attend and present at bioremediation-relevant scientific and technical meetings (Battelle Bioremediation and Recalcitrant Compound Symposia) and publish regularly in both of those proceedings, and in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Summary of Experience

My training and extensive experience is in analyzing data and evaluating the feasibility and implementation of in situ remedial alternatives. My early years were spent at a small environmental firm and the original bioremediation firm (ECOVA), a division of AMOCO (1990-1993), where I worked on sites with petroleum hydrocarbons issues. While at ECOVA, I also worked on three chlorinated solvent sites, including Dept. of Energy's Savannah River Site. Those sites proved to be more challenging, and for the last 19 years I have specialized in natural attenuation (NA), enhanced biodegradation and the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and other methods to treat chlorinated solvent impacted ground water. After ECOVA, I worked for five years or more at each of three consulting firms; BEAK (1993-1998), Exponent (1998-2004) and Hargis (2004-2010).

At BEAK, I worked with Dr. Dave Major, and we were at the forefront in developing NA evaluations for chlorinated solvents. I helped develop the Remediation Technology Development Forum (RTDF) training course on NA of chlorinated solvents given to state and Federal regulators throughout the country, and was an instructor for most classes (1997-1999). I was also on the RTDF review team for the EPA's draft and final versions of the chlorinated solvent NA guidance document (USEPA 1998). Working with the RTDF exposed me to the R&D and remediation teams of DuPont and General Electric. In 1994, we did an early pilot test for enhanced biodegradation of TCE and I was involved the first bioaugmentation pilot test at Dover Air Force Base (1998). My knowledge of ZVI comes from my time at BEAK, which owned EnviroMetal Technologies Inc (ETI) during my tenure; I was present when the first full-scale ZVI wall was installed in 1993.

At Exponent and Hargis I gained extensive experience with more than 50 chlorinated solvent plumes. I have now evaluated more than 95 plumes for natural attenuation or enhanced bioremediation and worked on sites in 30 states, in Canada and overseas. Past and current clients include 23 Fortune 500 companies and the Dept of Defense/Dept. of Energy. Although my primary work is still with chlorinated solvent problems, I have recently worked on chromium [VI] and emerging compounds (i.e., perchlorate, 1, 4-dioxane). I have provided technical support for litigation cases involving chlorinated solvents, petroleum and pesticides, and support for natural resource damage assessments regarding the fate and transport of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs).

Education, Training and Teaching

  Ph.D., Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
  M.S., Ecology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  B.S., Biology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  Post Doctoral research at California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, and University of California, Berkeley, California
  Special technical courses in:
  Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs), USEPA
  In situ Permeable Reactive Barriers, USEPA
  Ecological Risk Assessment, Colorado State University
  40-hour OSHA Health and Safety training for Hazardous Waste Sites
  8-hour OSHA Health and Safety Supervisory training for Hazardous Waste Sites
  Instructor for technical courses:
  RTDF course on Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents
  University of Wisconsin - Madison Dept of Civil Engineering extension course on Natural Attenuation
  Lectures on bioremediation in environmental engineering courses at the University of Washington, Cal State Northridge and Seattle University

Publications, Published Presentations and Abstracts

Lehmicke, L. and E. Frauen. 2016. Walking a Tightrope: Making a Dilute PCE Plume Disappear with EISB. Abstract/poster presentation in Battelle's 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated & Recalcitrant Compounds, Palm Springs, CA. (May 19-22, 2016).

Lehmicke, L. and J. DeLaet. 2016. So You Think You Know Where the Source is? (Stuff Happens). Abstract/poster presentation in Battelle's 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Palm Springs, CA. (May 19-22, 2016).

Marcillac, J., Berman, M., Powell, T. and L. Lehmicke. 2014. Bugs in a Hot Tub - Taking Advantage of Residual Heat Post ERH Treatment. Presentation at Battelle's 9th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA. (May 19-22, 2014).

Darlington, R., L. Lehmicke, R. Andrachek and D. Freedman. 2013. Anaerobic Abiotic Transformations of cis-1, 2-Dichloroethene in Fractured Sandstone. Chemosphere. 90(8):2226-2232.

Yu, R., D. Freedman , L. Lehmicke and R. Andrachek. 2013. Biostimulation-Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in Fractured Sandstone Microcosms. Presented at Battelle's 2nd International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies. (June 10-13, 2013).

Freedman, D., Y. Kanitkar, P. Jacob and L. Lehmicke. 2013. Use of Dichloromethane as an Electron Donor for Reductive Dechlorination of PCE to Ethene. Presented at Battelle's 2nd International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies. (June 10-13, 2013).

Plaines, A., M. Miller, C. McClarnon and L. Lehmicke. 2013. EISB with Emulsified Vegetable Oil and Bioaugmentation at a Former Solvent Recycling Site in Florida. Presented at Battelle's 2nd International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies. (June 10-13, 2013).

Lehmicke, L., R. Pratt, D. Livesay and J. Kuntz. 2013. EISB with EVO and Bioaugmentation at an Active Facility in the UK. Presented at Battelle's 2nd International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies. (June 10-13, 2013).

Barajas, F., D. Freedman and L. Lehmicke. 2012. Field and Laboratory Evidence for Anaerobic Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane. Presentation at Battelle's 8th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA. (May 21-24, 2012).

Pierce, A., B.L. Parker, R. Aravena, R. Andrachek, R. Darlington, L. Lehmicke and D. L. Freedman. 2012. Integrated Assessment of Field and Laboratory Studies on the Complete Mineralization of Trichloroethene in a Fractured Sandstone Aquifer. Presentation at Battelle's 8th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA. (May 21-24, 2012).

Barajas, F., D. Freedman and L. Lehmicke. 2011. Anaerobic biodegradation of 1, 4-Dioxane at two former industrial sites in California. For the 11th International Battelle Symposium on In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Reno, NV (June 27-30, 2011).

Lehmicke, L. and K. Puentes. 2011. EISB with Emulsified Vegetable Oil and Bioaugmentation at a former industrial site in California. For the 11th International Battelle Symposium on In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Reno, NV (June 27-30, 2011).

Leo, T., L. Lehmicke, K. Coons, W. Schlappi, B. Meyers and B. Anderson. 2010. In Situ Biotreatment of Perchlorate for Ground Water Source Control. Presented at Battelle's 7th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA. (May 24-27, 2010).

Bone, A., D. Freedman and L. Lehmicke. 2009. Dichloromethane Inhibition of Trichloroethene Reductive Dechlorination Activity in Bioaugmentation Cultures. Presented at the 10th International Battelle Symposium on In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Baltimore, MD (May 5-8, 2009).

Darlington, R., L. Lehmicke, R. Andrachek and D. Freedman. 2008. Biotic and Abiotic Anaerobic Transformations of Trichloroethene and cis-1, 2-Dichloroethene in Fractured Sandstone. Environmental Science & Technology. 42(12): 4323-4330.

Lehmicke, L., J. Schwall, M. Palmer and E. Modiano. 2008. Enhanced Biodegradation Following 12 Years of Pump and Treat. Presented at Battelle's 6th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA. (May 19-22, 2008).

Barr, K., and L. Lehmicke. 2008. Natural Attenuation Assessment of Chlorinated and Fluorinated Recalcitrant Compounds at a Major Minnesota Landfill. Presented at Battelle's 6th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA. (May 19-22, 2008).

Barros, N., C. Repta, D.W. Major, M. McMaster, L. Lehmicke, and C. Ross. 2007. Successful Application of Emulsified Vegetable Oil and Bioaugmentation Culture to Treat Trichloroethene. Presented at the 9th International Battelle Symposium on In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Baltimore, MD (May 7-10, 2007).

Lehmicke, L., D. Livesay and R. Pratt. 2006. Anaerobic Biodegradation of TCE in Groundwater Following In Situ Thermal Treatment. Presented at Battelle's 5th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA. (May 22-25, 2006).

Darlington, R., D. Freedman and L. Lehmicke. 2006. PCR-DGGE analysis of TCE degrading microorganisms in a fractured sandstone contaminated with TCE. Presented at Battelle's 5th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA. (May 22-25, 2006).

Lehmicke, L., and P. Johansen. 2005. "Natural Attenuation: Better Than Ground Water Extraction?" Presented at the 8th International Battelle Symposium on In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Baltimore, MD (June 6-9, 2005).

Darlington, R., L. Lehmicke and D. L. Freedman. 2005. "Laboratory Evaluation of Chlorinated Ethene Transformation Processes in Fractured Sandstone." Presented at the 8th International Battelle Symposium on In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Baltimore, MD (June 6-9, 2005).

Freedman, D., L. Lehmicke and M. Verce. 2005a. Reductive Dechlorination of Tetrachloroethene Following Abiotic Versus Biotic Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium. Bioremediation. Journal. 9(2): 87-97.

Freedman, D. L., Gliem, J. N., and L. Lehmicke. 2005b. "Dichloromethane as an Electron Donor for Reductive Dechlorination of TCE." Presented at the 8th International Battelle Symposium on In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Baltimore, MD (June 6-9, 2005).

Law, S., L. Lehmicke, D. L. Freedman, R. Darlington and B. Parker. 2004. Evaluation of biological and abiotic degradation of TCE at a fractured rock site. Presented at Battelle's 4th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA.

Lehmicke, L., R. Cline, P. Pickens, and D. L. Freedman. 2004. Anaerobic oxidation of vinyl chloride in a groundwater plume. Presented at Battelle's 4th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA.

Lehmicke, L., K. Coons, R. Cline, S. Chin, and D. Freedman. 2003. Enhanced bioremediation of a plume containing Trichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene and methylene chloride. Presented at Battelle's 7th International Symposium: In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Orlando, FL.

Freedman, D., L. Lehmicke and M. Verce. 2003. The effect of chemically reducing Chromium(VI) with polysulfides on reductive dechlorination of PCE. In: Proc. Battelle's 7th International Symposium: In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Orlando, FL. 2003.

Freedman, D. L. and Lehmicke, L. 2002. "In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes," Water 21 (Magazine of the International Water Association), December issue, pp. 49-50.

Basel, M., and L. Lehmicke. 2002. Natural attenuation of Freons and TCE in fractured rock. Presented at Battelle's 3rd International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA.

Lehmicke, L., C. Noftsker, P. Johansen, and P. Thompson. 2000. Evaluation of natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes in a plume undergoing groundwater extraction. In: Proc. Battelle's 2nd International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA.

Brugger, G. and L. Lehmicke. 2000. Dating a chlorinated solvent release: 1982 or 1994. Presented at the 10th Annual West Coast Conference on Contaminated Soils and Water (AEHS).

Lehmicke, L., and N. Mukherjee. 1999. Natural attenuation of chlorinated methanes and 1, 2 DCA at a site in California. Poster presented at Battelleís 5th International Symposium: In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, San Diego, CA.

Cox, E.E., M. McMaster, D.W. Major, L. Lehmicke, and S. Neville. 1998a. Natural attenuation of 1,2-dichloroethane and chloroform in groundwater at a Superfund site. In: Proc. 1st International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA.

Cox, E.E., T.A. McAlary, D.W. Major, J. Allan, L. Lehmicke, and S. Neville. 1998b. Cometabolic bioventing of chlorinated solvents at a former waste lagoon. In: Proc. 1st International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA.

Cox, E.E., L. Lehmicke, R. Mechaber, B. Su, and D.W. Major. 1997. Intrinsic biodegradation of chlorinated aliphatics under sequential anaerobic-cometabolic conditions. Abstract, p. 203. In: In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Volume 3. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. Presented at the 4th International Symposium, New Orleans, LA.

Lehmicke, L.G., E.E. Cox, and D.W. Major. 1997. Involvement of dichloromethane in the intrinsic biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes. Abstract, p. 205. In: In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation, Volume 3. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. Presented at the 4th International Symposium, New Orleans, LA.

Cox, E.E., L. Lehmicke, R. Mechaber, B. Su, and D.W. Major. 1996. Intrinsic biodegradation of chlorinated aliphatics under sequential anaerobic-cometabolic conditions. Abstract, p. 139. In: Proc. Symposium on Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Organics in Ground Water. EPA/540/R-96/509.

Lehmicke, L.G., E.E. Cox, and D.W. Major. 1996. Involvement of dichloromethane in the intrinsic biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes. Abstract, p. 159. In: Proc. Symposium on Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Organics in Ground Water. EPA/540/R-96/509.

Cox, E.E., E. Edwards, L. Lehmicke, and D.W. Major. 1995. Intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethene and trichloroethane in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic aquifer. In: Intrinsic Bioremediation. R. Hinchee, J. Wilson, and D. Downey (eds). Battelle Press, Columbus, OH.

W.G. Meijer, L. M. Croes, B. Jenni, L. G. Lehmicke, M. E. Lidstrom, and L. Dijkhuizen. 1990. Characterization of Xanthobacter strains H4-14 and 25a and enzyme profiles after growth under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Arch. Microbiol. 153:360.

Lehmicke, L. G., and M. Lidstrom. 1985. Organization of genes necessary for growth of the hydrogen-methanol autotroph Xanthobacter sp. strain H4-14 on hydrogen and carbon dioxide. J. Bact. 162:1244.